Smart Cities : IoT Cloud
By Bhagvan Kommadi
Smart Cities Platform is an effective integration of physical, digital and human systems in the built environment to deliver a sustainable, prosperous and inclusive future for its citizens. City Management Platform has supervision, coordination, management and optimization features. Information sharing, Incident management, Business Intelligence and Decision Support are part of the platform components. Traffic Management, Public Transport, Electric Vehicles, Events and Emergencies management, Weather and emissions and Security components send and receive messages to the platform. Sensors and Devices send events and messages to the platform related to various aspects of the city management.
Disaster Management, Security & Surveillance, Asset Management, Building Management, Emergency Alert Management, Smart Parking, Meteorological Data Management, Water Quality Management, Solid Waste Management, Early Health Warning System, Real Time Incident Notification, Irrigation Telemanagement, Smart Lighting, Property Information Management, Biometrics system and Compliant Registration System use IoT sensors and devices to form IoT Cloud. IoT Cloud has apps and dashboard to view the events sent by the sensors and devices. Most of the information of IoT is read only and dashboard presents real time value of the data.
Tactile Internet takes this to the next level where the IoT cloud presents control to physical and virtual objects related to smart cities platform. Traffic Management exposes the web cams to control the view (zoom in, out, pan in, pan out, resolution change) from the IoT Cloud apps. Smart Grid can expose through the energy value chain the meters to be controlled by the distributors and consumers for activation, deactivation and closure of power subscription.
Traditional City is unconnected, not citizen focused, inefficient, closed system based not open, no ability to drive cross system innovation and city scale change at speed. New Generation Smart City has city data unlocked from individual silos. The smart cities platform has logical separation of data, service and customer delivery layers. Externally driven innovation has enablement of new marketplace for city information and services. Citizens, SMEs and social entrepreneurs are enabled to co-create public services and create new value with city data.
Smart City Framework has key cross city governance and delivery processes. Business management consists of city vision, operating model, leadership, governance, stakeholder collaboration, procurement/supplier management, interoperability needs mapping and reference model. Identity & privacy management, Digital inclusion & channel management, resources mapping & management are part of the smart city road-map. The critical success factors are strategic clarity, stake-holder engagement, achievable delivery, user focus, future proofing, supplier partnership, skills and benefit realisation. The stakeholders are political leaders, managers, operators of the local gov-ernment and service operators – public/private, utilities and transport. End users and prosumers are inhabitants and local business representatives. Investors in this initiative are private banks, venture capitalists, pension funds and international banks. The solution providers are technology providers, financiers and investors.
The pillars of a city are economic, environmental, social and technology related. Partnerships, fi-nancial aid and economic stability form the economic pillar. The resource efficiency, energy effi-ciency and waste to energy efficiency are part of the environmental pillar. Social values and cultural values are social pillar factors. IOT, RFID and embedded systems are part of the technology pillar. The approach is based on integrated systems approach (e.g.,SOA) to avoid single point of risk. The risks are quantified, communicated and managed across the departments and stake-holders. The decision making process governance consists of sound leadership, management and stewardship. Critical infrastructure improvements are needed to respond to dynamic conditions and practice.
The green field approach is migration to smart city from traditional city. It takes shorter time but longer path as it is built from scratch. Brown field is longer time based and takes shorter path. The existing area is rebuilt for new purpose in industrialized and developed countries. Architect Corner suggests a middle ground approach to evolve from measured, networked, managed, integrated and smart levels. Measured is creating a pervasive sensor networks throughout city.
Networked is connecting node connections through low-cost communications. Managed level is achieved through real time analysis and control of city systems. Integrated is integrating isolated systems and across cities. Smart level is creating a SaaS based citizen services, applications and management tools.
The approach recommended is to avoid bottlenecks for implementation by overcoming obstacles and initiating the process.